Final Major Project

This week we received the brief for the final major project. The project follows on from the planning for major project which was completed previously so it would be ideal to recap on what the planning for major project was about.


Planning for Final Major Project

City Branding Brief

– Jake Allen –

Typography is something that can be used in many ways, whether it is used for creative or corporate purposes. As a creative practitioner It is very important and many projects based around typography can be very difficult to tackle. I want to achieve something very creative involving typography in my final major project.

Initial ideas and thought process,

After brainstorming ideas these where the potential projects that I thought would be great for the final major, Creative typographic posters with the theme of places, Product labelling for healthy eating food items, Promotional booklets and flyers for an art event and a Brochure project for a online store or event.

Creative Typographical Posters,

The idea behind this is to create typographical posters designed around a location, there would be a potential to create a series of attractive designs surrounding cities from all over the world. This would allow me to add context to each and every poster as each city has its own features and assets. Culture would play a huge part on influencing the designs.

Product labelling of Healthy Eating Items,

This idea stemmed from the how poor some of the current packaging can be with food items which then lead me onto heathy eating. After looking at heathy eating products there is some out there that need to be changed and making more appealing to general people. There is many of possible routes that creatively could make these food items become more appealing but good design and illustration would been really effective. The younger generation is the major target audience for heathy eating food products as they are the most effected by the obesity issues we face here in the UK.

Promotional Booklets and Flyers for an Event,

Events happen all over the world daily, in some cities they can be the centre of attention. The thought of this idea came from producing printed solutions to the project set. There are loads of printed outcomes that can be created for events and especially art events. This would allow me to choose the event and make sure the promotional items are effective enough for a successful project.

Brochure for Online Store,

Today there is a vast majority of online stores that don’t get enough attention because they don’t have a presence on the high street. It could be argued that many of these stores don’t need the high street presence with the way times are changing. However I feel some kind of physical advertisement needs to be made, this would allow a much larger audience of people to be reached. A brochure that will be placed in shops and other places of interest would allow for more attention.

Developing ideas,

The next part of planning for major project lead me on to giving the ideas rational and context, at this stage the ideas did slightly change and some of them became disregarded. My favourite idea is the creative typography project with the theme based on cities. I have looked into popular places to visit along with creative designs surrounding the cultures. There is so many great creative designs out there for inspiration however I don’t think this idea allows for enough context to be added for a major project.

The labelling of heathy eating products allows for great context to be added to the rationale referring to the responsibilities of a graphic designer. There is a lot of contextual influences that will effect this project as there is many critical debates surrounding the obesity levels here in the UK. This will allow much more context to be added to the developing advertisements of heathy food items. This is one of the ideas I feel will take the project the extra level however this is not an idea I decided to work on for the final project.

Promotional Booklets and flyers for an event and the brochure for an online shopping store projects would allow for great practical items of design to be crafted, however this isn’t something I feel would push the project to the next level. There isn’t enough cultural context involved with these two projects, I think that for a final major project there needs to be a great level of context considered.

Reviewing all of these projects gave me a thought, I really would like to achieve something creative with typography however the cultural context of the heathy eating project gave it the edge. I wanted to re-think how I could possibly do a typographical project but with more cultural meaning. This lead me onto city branding, I had reasonably taken a trip to Sweden. Their capital city called Stockholm have just rebranded the cities identity, as I have done branding before and really enjoyed working on such projects it was starting to influence my idea. Branding a city is a lot more than branding a company, a company tells you what they want to branded as. I wanted to dive more into researching City Branding.


To start off my research I wanted to have a look at current examples of city brands and how effective they are. To start with I will have a look at brands such as Stockholm.

The branding was created by a company called Essen International, they have received great feedback from the branding and had this to say.

“Our rebranding for Stockholms stad was initiated by the need to coherently communicate a wide range of offerings, everything from world museums to scavenging. Stockholm is taking a giant leap forward, fueling its progress with the help of one strong vision, identity and statement. Stockholm is truly becoming the Capital of Scandinavia.”

“The updated brand is flexible enough to support the city’s many functions and responsibilities and is orbiting around the taylor-made typeface Stockholm Type and the clarified symbol of St:Erik — the patron of Stockholm.”

EssenInternational,. “Esseninternational – Stockholm”. N.p., 2014. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.

There rebrand is pushing the city in the correct direction, the design is modern and contemporary and has great characteristics about it they even created a typeface for the brand.

The I Amsterdam brand has received a great backing since its lunch, they have achieved what they set out to do. The idea behind the brand is to see Amsterdam in their new light rather than the stereotypical Amsterdam people used to know, involving the red light district and the legalised drugs that are so easy to get your hands on. They have achieved a brand ethos that puts the city into the top 25 cities in the world to live in. This proves that their are cities out there that need a rebrand to rejuvenate the city just as they have here with Amsterdam.

I have found a video of a conference that took place in Amsterdam when their brand was released which was lead by Julian Stubbs. It talks about many of things that are needed to be considered massively when it comes to branding a place. When you buy a companies product you are buying into their brand and they give you a promise that your life will get better if you choose them. With cities there isn’t an owner there is only influences such as people, features and bringing all of the important things together in one vision.

If we think about Barcelona it is an extremely nice city with great arts and culture however it was seen as the black hole of Spain back in the 1970s. In modern day society the whole concept of Barcelona has changed. It is seen as lovely place to visit and live with contemporary and historical architecture that has been used as a marketing ploy. This is something that I feel needs to be considered when it comes to choosing the place I will be branding. It is impossible to just imagine a place has great architecture or a fantastic culture for the sake of a project. If I choose such a place where great features don’t exist it would be difficult to give the city a rejuvenated brand.

The context has to be great for the city also, I can not choose a city that has recently been branded or has successful branding currently as my work will not only be compared to the current works. It will also lack the context and reasoning as to why the city needed branding. There needs to be a point of focus, if you try to stand for too many things you become invisible.

Final Idea for Major Project

The Branding of a City, this project is the best option for me to develop a strong Final Major Project, there is so many contextual routes that have to be realised to make this a successful project. There are many cultural debates going on in the world about major cities so the next stage is to choose the city I will be branding.

I am putting the cultures and major influences of the cities, along with architecture into consideration first. There are some possibilities out there for rebrands, the top three for consideration are. Berlin in Germany, Paris in France and Rome in Italy. At first I wasn’t interested in rebranding a huge city as I wanted to brand something that isn’t already out there. However these bigger cities make for the better projects, rejuvenating a major city with a rebrand will be a challenge but an achievable task.

I have looked into the branding of places and cities and have realised what needs to be considered the most.

The identity needs to be simple, clear and strong. There has to be goals for the brand, whether it be nice clean living and or a creative environment, or it is to be a well organised business place, with points of interest like architecture. Core values will be the major selling point for the brand and its Identity. There needs to be an attractiveness for tourism to generate revenue.

Researching into Paris and their current branding,

I have been looking for examples of the current city branding of Paris, It is very unclear what is the actual brand for the city at the moment. This is something that needs to be addressed when it comes to the clarity of the brands identity. The closest I found was one marque on a tourist information website.

I don’t think that the design of the marque is bad, however I do not think that this current marque is recognisable by the public. The brands identity isn’t as successful as the I amsterdam, the ethos of the brand that should be portrayed is very different to the current feeling. Paris over the past few months and years has been struggling to keep the image it once had. Paris was once known as the city of love and peace, however nowadays with the rise of the activist group ISIS who a terror threat are getting increasingly larger are causing havoc in Europe.

Paris have felt some of the worst fear in years at the hands of ISIS by causing bombings and murdering innocent people in the city. They have bombed huge musical events and murdered countless people, thus far leaves the people of Paris to be afraid and fear for there lives in there own city. Not many people call it the city of love anymore as it is now seen as a place that is involved with a war and terrible threat from the other side. This leads onto the political side of Paris falling ever so slowly down the list of best places to live. Something needs to happen to this city to rejuvenate what was once great. As a designer we have a responsibility to ensure that we use our skills and talents to push brands and products into the right market and community. Could a rebrand of Paris rebuild the city as it did in Amsterdam of recent years and Glasgow back in the 1980s.

Presentation of Idea

Throughout the Planning for Major Project module we were asked to present our ideas to the class and receive feedback from other peers. The feedback I received was as follows, I should stick to what is most important for the city and the brand do not allow for miscommunication. Give everything a reason as to why you want to achieve the set out goals. The research was good and informative however I need to avoid going around in circles. I also took part in giving formative feedback to other peers involving their ideas with there own final major projects.

Planning the Project

The first stage of the project is to create a plan of action, I will for each week that the project runs have a time plan to ensure I keep on track with the development of the project.

Week 1 and 2 will be for sketches and development of the brand identity to ensure it works well and is effective. I will assess the work making sure that the identity replicates the core values and turns away from any current issues the city faces with stereotypes.

Week 3 to 4 will be used to develop branded items and supporting materials for the city.

Weeks 5 to 6 will be the process of developing tourist items promoting the cities brand, this will include development of the city maps and signs.

Week 7 to 8 checking through the success of the outcomes making any changes necessary.

Week 9 to 10 producing the finished items and printing any outcomes for a high quality finish.

The brand I will develop will be both exciting and creative while keeping the design simple. Simple is key no miscommunication can happen as the design will turn into as the saying goes “Wall Paper”. The core values of Paris are, it is known as the city of love and peace with great cultural aspects. They have great architecture along with a great musical scene, I will try to re light the fire Paris once had. The French language is even known as the language of love, I think this is going to be important to the rebuilding of the communities. To lose the whole aspect of love could be very bad for the city. Paris can move away from the idea that they are surrounded with war and terror threats, but for this to happen they need something new to build upon. The branding will be executed to be recognisable instantly without any confusion.

Setting goals for the city is a great way to allow the brand to define itself within Paris. Rejuvenate what was once great, the city will be clean and peaceful. A very nice clean organised place to live pushing it back up the list of places to visit. Market today and visitors will come tomorrow. They have a nice arts community that should be used to push the city forward in modern art cultures. There is so much culture to add to the designs and promotional branding such as brochures for events and flyers. I think that the culture of Paris will influence the designs massively. The right balance from the people to organisations and government will allow for a great influential place to live and visit. What do Paris stand for? The designs could go in the direction of standing up to the terrors threats, however for the cities sake I feel that they will need to move away from any terror theme and forget about the past few years but remember the lives that were lost.

Using all my knowledge from research I think it is massively important that the key core values of Paris are identified. With the core values I will be able to create an identity that follows the ethos the place wants to be known for. The body of work produced will fall inline with the core values as the city needs something refreshing. The project is not just about creating the marque and logo type, there will be a large body of work.

Target Audience,

For this project, there is so many influential people in France and the most of them are in Paris. Using the right balance of popular and influential people to push this brand with a modern appealing creative design should appealing to the correct audience. The target audience which will create the most success is young adults to middle age. They are the most professional and willing to move and experience the world. Media should play huge part in helping such a project get the backing with influential people of Paris.

Core Values of Paris,

City of love – It is very stereotypical however I believe it is what Paris needs to rebuild as a community.

City of culture – Everyone around the world knows Paris has great culture from arts to cooking and music.

Modern living – Paris is seen as a modern city with clean living and great education and easily accessible.

Project outcomes

I will design and produce a fitting brand identity that replicates the core values while keeping the design work simple.

The brand will then be used to show how it would fit into modern day concepts for example. Billboards, Websites promotional items and business cards. There will be a minimum of 4 examples that could include Flyers, Posters, Brochures and Postcards

The current city map for Paris isn’t the greatest in my opinion I will work to develop or create the city map for tourists along with a guide booklet. This will allow for creative experiments on making information fun and creative.

The culture in Paris is one of the many reasons it is seen as a great city, this is something that needs to been shown. Using posters and flyers will allow me to advertise the current cultural bonuses Paris has to offer.

There will be an evaluation produced based on the following,

How effective was the design and could it be improved, does the correct target audience connect with the design.

Do the designs work along side the brand. Is the message that the place wanted the brand to push across successful and shown throughout the brand ethos.


In summery the research I found throughout the development of this proposal influenced the project brief massively. I feel as though the project brief I have produced is really interesting and going to be great to work with in the coming weeks. From the initial ideas to the final project proposal I believe I have chosen the most suitable route to achieve a great project for the last module.


Researching Further

As I now have my idea in place along with a plan of action I want to start by researching further into specific subjects involving paris for example.

What is Paris famous for?

Paris is often called the “international capital of style,” and it ranks alongside Milan, London and New York as a leading city in the fashion industry. Paris Fashion Week is one of the most-important fashion events in the world and takes place twice each year in the city. Paris also attracts artists and chefs from all over the world. The city has hundreds of museums and thousands of restaurants. The Louvre is the most-visited museum in the world and houses many historic works, including the Venus de Milo statue and the Mona Lisa.

The history of Paris, France, dates back to the third century, which was a time in which the modern city was a relatively small town occupied by Celtic people who were known as the Parisii. By the fifth century, Paris was named the capital of France, and by the 12th century, it was the home of the University of Paris and the largest city in the entire western world.

Why is Paris called the “City of Love”?

Many couples aspire to go to Paris on their honeymoon because the city is so well-known for its romantic walks along the Seine River, sidewalk cafe dining and, of course, the Eiffel Tower all aglow at night. The other beautiful architecture, lovely hotels and fine art also help earn the city its name and reputation. Couples in love also enjoy being where they hear French, the “language of love,” spoken all around them.

Why is Paris called the “City of Light”?

Another reason Paris is called the “City of Light” is because it was one of the first cities to start using street lights during the Great Exhibition of 1889. Having street lights meant people could now do activities after dark that they could not do before. The streets suddenly grew safer. People were no longer forced to stay in their houses all night and when they did go out, they became more productive.

While I was researching this part I came across this website called they talk about why Paris is so famous and they point out so many interesting points that are worth a mention. There is a lot to read about so its not worth me putting it all in this part of my research so I include a link to the page here

Here are a few of the points he made. ” The history of Paris alone is enough to lure people of all cultures to its gates.”

“Paris has a wealth of museums that entice art lovers from all over the world, not just Europe. Although the Louvre immediately comes to mind, Paris was the major scene of contemporary art in the early 20th century.”

“It is impossible to mention Paris and not discuss the Eiffel Tower, the icon of Paris that was constructed by Gustav Eiffel’s company in 1887. The finished product was displayed at the 1889 World’s Fair exhibition in Paris and is made of pure iron (not steel as many people assume).”

”  Yes, the wine and food are excellent in Paris and the tourist attractions are endless, but Paris is also one of the world capitals of fashion. Paris fashion week, usually held during each season, attracts luxurious, high end designers with cutting edge trends and styles. Famous French fashion designers include Hermès, Christian Dior, Yves Saint Laurent, Louis Vuitton, and Coco Chanel.”

“To conclude, Paris still fascinates me just as it does any seasoned traveler. The food, culture, museums, landmarks, and appearance in pop culture propels it the list of most visited cities in the world (#2 in Europe).”

It’s strange to think that Paris has lost some of its love and feeling to say that it is the number 2 most visited city in Europe. Either way with visitors coming to visit the city I will have to ensure that the brand I create is fully functional and fit for purpose. It will have to follow the guidelines I set myself earlier on in the planning for major project. To recap “The identity needs to be simple, clear and strong. There has to be goals for the brand, whether it be nice clean living and or a creative environment, or it is to be a well organised business place, with points of interest like architecture. Core values will be the major selling point for the brand and its Identity. There needs to be an attractiveness for tourism to generate revenue.”

Who are the influential people of paris?
Researching into this was interesting as there is so many to choose from. There are too many to include all of them in my research so I decided to gather little bits of information on just a few.

Alexandre Gustave Eiffel

I think that this person should be given a mention as he was the reason for the most attractive and famous piece of architecture in Paris.

Eiffel was a French engineer and architect, and the most famous tower in Paris bears his name. Born outside the capital, he came to the city to study chemistry at the Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures. At first, he worked as a project manager for a railway bridge for Charles Nepveu’s company, eventually taking charge of the entire project. ‘Eiffel et Cie.’ was his own consulting and construction company, which was responsible for several large projects both in and out of France. The engineer also created La Ruche, which is today a Parisian landmark, but which originally served as a wine rotunda. His Eiffel Tower was a major attraction of the International Exposition in 1889. That same year, almost two million people visited it. Another great design from ‘the magician of iron’ was the framework of the Statue of Liberty, a French gift to the United States.

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Brigitte Bardot

She is one of the world-famous French actresses, often recognized just by her initials B.B. as she was called Bebe in her childhood. Born in Paris, she had been modelling for Elle magazine, even before she turned 15. She first appeared on the big screen in 1952 in ‘Le Trou Normand’. In 1956 Bardot starred in her most famous film ‘And God Created Woman’ by Roger Vadim. Since then, through the 50s and 60s, likewise Marlin Monroe in the USA, Bardot was perceived as sex symbol. She is also the one who popularize bikini swimwear. In the 70s she quit the film industry and became an animal activist – her foundation celebrated 20 years of existence in 2006. In the 90s she openly expressed her political views, supporting the right wing and speaking against immigration and Islam in France. Bardot still remains on the top of various film star rankings. She lives in Saint Tropez.

Charles de Gaulle

Général de Gaulle, the famous military leader and French statesman, was born in Lille, but he received his education in Paris. He started his military career at the renowned Saint-Cyr, where he graduated in 1912. Significantly enough, when World War II broke out, he escaped to Britain to lead the Free French Movement. In 1944, the general returned to Paris, his army liberated the city from German occupation, and he became head of the provisional government. In 1958, he was asked to become the prime minister. Between 1959 and 1969, he was the president of the Fifth Republic. De Gaulle dealt with the French economic crisis and granted independence to Algeria. In his quest for complete independence, he developed French nuclear weaponry and opposed Britain to enter the European Economic Community. He died within a year of his retirement, unexpectedly and just two weeks before his 80th birthday.

Charles Pierre Baudelaire

The life of our city is rich in poetic and marvellous subjects. We are enveloped and steeped as though in an atmosphere of the marvellous; but we do not notice it.

This influential cult French poet of the 19th Century was born in Paris, the city that inspired many of his masterpieces. After receiving an education at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, he travelled to India and Mauritius for a year. He was fascinated with the stories of Edgar Allan Poe, and decided to work on translating them into English. In 1857, Baudelaire published his most famous collection of poems, ‘Les Fleurs du Mal’ (The Flowers of Evil), with themes of death and vivid descriptions contrasting between ugliness and beauty. As part of the Bohemian scene, he gathered in cafés with other artists to discuss and express ideas about art. The Brasserie in the rue des Martyrs was one such noisy, dimly-lit spots where he met with Murger, Courbet and others. For years, he lived in poverty, and eventually became addicted to alcohol and opium. Appreciated much after his death, he’s buried in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris, and his tomb is one of the most frequently visited ones.

Claude Monet

Claude Monet was a famous French painter, a founder of Impressionism, and a master of plein-air landscape painting. His notable works can be found on the walls of many Parisian museums and art galleries. Born in Paris, he lived there for only five years, as his parents decided to move to Normandy. He came back to the city in 1858 to study at the Swiss Academy. After staying there for several years, he created his own style and also met and influenced other artists, including his friend Eduard Manet. Later, he worked on a series of paintings depicting the same landscapes or buildings, but at different times of the day and in various weather conditions – ‘Impression. Sunrise’, ‘Haystacks’, ‘Water Lilies’, ‘Rouen Cathedral’ and ‘Houses of Parliament’. His famous home was in the village of Giverny, about 80 kilometres from Paris, and this is where he remained an active painter until his last days.

Coco Chanel

Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel, nicknamed ‘Coco’, was a famous French fashion designer who greatly contributed to world trends and tastes in terms of chic and elegance. She was born outside Paris to a poor family, and was orphaned at the age of 6 along with her four siblings. Thanks to the generosity of a millionaire officer, she was able to move to Paris when she turned 16, and a few years later she opened her first boutique with women’s hats. In 1921, she introduced her world-famous Chanel No. 5 perfumes. Coco started a new era in fashion, promoting classic but expensive simplicity. Her major inventions were a little black dress and a tweed suit, all labelled with her original logo, a symbol for excellence. She died in Paris at the age of 87, but her name remains alive in the world of celebrities and fashion.

Edith Piaf

Ooh, I fell in love / Mmm, I was a fool / Yes, Paris can be so beautifully cruel / Paris can be a gay coquette who wants to love and then forget / Stranger beware, there’s love in the air (‘Under Paris Skies’)

Born Giovanna Gassion, Piaf was a French singer gifted with an extraordinary voice that once heard could not be forgotten. After first singing engagement in a night club in 1935, she instantly became a worldwide success and ultimately the most highly paid star of her time. Her fantasy of performing at ABC, Paris’s most reputable music hall, became a reality, and she also sang her lungs out in New York, Washington D.C., Mexico and Cuba. The majority of the memorable songs she performed were composed under her supervision, but ‘La Vie en Rose’ she wrote on her own. Her first song was recorded in 1936, her last, ‘L’homme de Berlin’, in 1963. Piaf is buried in the Pere Lachaise cemetery, yet her songs still tear at your heart with emotion.

Louis Blériot

Blériot was a French engineer and aviator who became famous for making the first aeroplane flight across the English Channel. Born in Cambrai, he came to the capital to study at the École Centrale Paris. He spent all of his savings to build monoplanes. Between 1903 and 1906, along with his companion Gabriel Vosit, he developed several aircraft designs under the brand of the Blériot-Voisin Company. He also continued to improve his piloting skills. On July 25, 1909, Blériot flew from Les Baraques to Dover in England. He made it in a heavier-than-air plane and it took him 37 minutes. This historical achievement won him 1,000 pounds offered by the ‘Daily Mail’ newspaper. Later, during World War I, Blériot got involved in aircraft manufacture. He is said to have survived over 50 plane crashes. Famous and rich, he lived quietly with his family until the end of his days.

Raoul Dufy

Raoul Dufy was a French painter and a representative of Fauvism, an artistic movement otherwise known as The Wild Beasts’ from France. He was born in Le Havre to a large family, dropped out of school at the age of 14 and started to work in a coffee-importing company. From 1895, Dufy attended evening art classes at Le Havre École des Beaux-Arts. In 1900, he received a scholarship from École Nationale des Beaux-Arts in Paris and moved to the capital to further develop his talent. Two years later, he got a chance to present his work at Berthe Weill’s gallery. Influenced by the major Impressionists as well as Henri Matisse, in his own works he also used bright colours and bold contours. Around 1909, Dufy adopted a new more subtle technique only to begin to experiment with Cubism in the next decade. He often depicted the French Riviera in his paintings, such as ‘The Boats of Martigues’ (1907), ‘Baie des Anges’ (1926) and ‘Open Window at Nice’ (1928). He was also an illustrator and a designer. Dufy died near Forcalquier, and like Matisse, he is buried in the Cimiez Monastery Cemetery, in the suburbs of Nice.

As I have found out there are lots of reasons as to why these different people are or have been extremely influential to the city of Paris. There is a lot of good history and cultures in Paris that could be used to bring this project to life. The question as to why these people are influential to Paris has been answered in the descriptions. As you can see there are many different cultures that have flourished in Paris. There was many of artists as there were musicians and composers. Fashion is also a huge part of Paris today which has gone on for some time.

All of these subjects give the project great points to reference when it comes to giving the city a rejuvenated brand. What other characteristics does the city possess to push the branding further? Referring to just a few of these give the city characteristics and ideals. There are possibly a few other characteristics that the cities holds however this project doesn’t need to become complicated one of the major tasks that have to be achieved with city branding is to keep it clear and simple.

What features gain the most interest from tourism? I have found looking into this a list of the top ten tourist attractions in Paris.

Eiffel Tower

I think this one is kind of obvious but its worth putting in here. Visiting the iconic symbol of Paris usually ranks as the number one thing to do for most tourists. Towering more than 1,000 feet (300 meters) high in the Champ de Mars park, this iron structure was constructed for the 1889 World Exposition. One of the world’s most photographed tourist attractions, the Eiffel Tower presents an excellent photography opportunity for both day and night times. Visitors can ride the elevator to see incredible views of the city or dine in one of the two fine restaurants that are situated within the tower.

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Topping the list of the world’s most visited museums, the Louvre Museum is located in the Louvre Palace with its signature glass pyramid marking its entrance. Housing a collection of more than 1 million objects, the Louvre boasts some of the world’s most famous art works such as Leonardo da Vinci’s “Mona Lisa,” Michelangelo’s “Dying Slave” and the Greek statue, “Venus of Milo.” Other popular exhibits include the extravagant apartments of Napoleon III, the ancient Code of Hammurabi, Egyptian antiquities and paintings by masters like Rembrandt and Rubens.

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Arc de Triomphe

One of the most popular tourist attractions in Paris, the Arc de Triomphe was constructed in 1806 to memorialize the triumphal battles of Napoleon Bonaparte. Standing 164 feet high and 148 feet (50 by 45 meters) wide, the arch features intricate reliefs depicting victorious battles and engraved names of many who died fighting for the emperor. Beneath the arch is the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from the first world war.

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Notre Dame de Paris

No trip to Paris could be complete without a visit to the world famous Notre Dame cathedral. Standing more than 400 feet (120 meters) high with two lofty towers and a spire, this marvelous church is considered a supreme example of French Gothic architecture. A tour of this 13th century masterpiece allows visitors to admire the awe-inspiring rose windows, Gothic carvings, beautiful sculptures and a collection of relics.

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One of the most noticeable landmarks in Paris is the striking white-domed basilica of the Sacre-Coeur. Situated at the city’s highest point on Montmartre hill, this stunning basilica draws many tourists every year to see its marble architecture and gorgeous interior. A tour awards visitors with views of gold mosaics, stained-glass windows and one of the world’s largest clocks.

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Jardin du Luxembourg

Known in English as the Luxembourg Gardens, this public park is the second largest in Paris. Visitors here can picnic or stroll leisurely among beautiful lawns, formal gardens and fruit orchards that feature many artistic statues and fountains. For fun and sport, there are jogging paths, tennis courts and fitness equipment. Children can play in the huge playground, ride ponies, watch a puppet show and sail model boats in a pond.

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Musee d’Orsay

A must-do for art lovers, the Musee d’Orsay is known for housing the world’s premier collection of impressionist paintings. Located in a former railway station, this grand museum showcases thousands of art works and objects that cover a period between the mid-1800s and the early 1900s. Visitors can walk through several rooms to view amazing art works by many famous artists such as Monet, Van Gogh, Cezane, Degas, Pissarro, Renoir and Jean-Francois Millet.

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Centre Pompidou

Designed in the style of high-tech architecture, Centre Pompidou is a cultural institution in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement. It houses a vast public library, the Musée National d’Art Moderne which is the largest museum for modern art in Europe, a bookshop, a movie theater and a panoramic terrace. The library occupies the first three floors of the building, while the museum’s permanent collection is located on floors 4 and 5. The first and top floor are used for large expositions. The Centre is named after Georges Pompidou, the President of France from 1969 to 1974 who commissioned the building.

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Begun sometime after 1239, the Sainte-Chapelle is considered among the highest achievements of Gothic architecture. Its construction was commissioned by King Louis IX of France to house his collection of Passion Relics, including Christ’s Crown of Thorns, one of the most important relics in medieval Christendom. Although damaged during the French revolution, and restored in the 19th century, it retains one of the most extensive in-situ collections of 13th-century stained glass anywhere in the world.

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Place de la Concorde

At the east end of the Champs-Elysées is Place de la Concorde, the largest square in Paris with fantastic vistas in every direction. It was in this square that the French King Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette and many others were guillotined during the French revolution. The large 3200 years old Egyptian obelisk in the center of the Place de la Concorde was brought from the Temple of Luxor in the 19th century.

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With all of this in mind it will allow me to build a strong brand and hopefully boost the attractiveness of the city. I feel as though I have enough information about Paris to start creating a brand for the city. This leads me onto the development stage of the brand identity over the next few stages I will show the development of the brand and the routes I took.

Development Process

Ideas for the brand design. I have taken a lot from my research as far as my ideas have gone I feel I should experiment with a few typographic drawings first as I think these will give the brand a nice feel if executed correctly.

I started as I normally would with sketching out logos. I feel this gives me a good idea of what will work best before I start developing a suitable logo. When I’m sketching it doesn’t restrict me to certain typefaces as I can just experiment and see what the results look it.

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I experimented with different ideas using different typographic styles but I think out of these my favourites are definitely the last few I started to develop. I like the look of the typographic styling however they need much more refinement. Some of the other sketches I did look interesting however I do not think they would suit Paris as a brand. The temptation to use the A as the Eiffel Tower is crazy however they have done that in the current branding and I don’t think it allows the typography to flow. The last few sketches on the third page are defiantly what I am going to go with I think they look more suitable and sensible for the target audience. I will develop these further and see how they turn out when shown on the computer.

I started to look at potential typefaces that I could slightly modify to create the logo/brand however I thought of an idea I wanted to try. Originally my idea was to just use the name in the branding but after looking back on my previous research I came up with a slightly different idea. As the Amsterdam brand uses ‘I Amsterdam’ to be extended as ‘I am inspired’ and others such as ‘I am creative’ etc. It gave me a thought, as Paris is known for been the city of love I thought I should try and use this to push the brand forward. Making and building the idea of Paris been a strong loving community again. The idea of this would be to get Paris to become a desired destination to visit again after all of the political issues and problems with terror. It’s a way for Paris to show that they are still there and they are still a lovely city with a great community visit.

Using what I have learnt the city has many great features so it would be ideal to use the idea of Paris been the city of love. It generalises everything I want to replicate and show throughout the brand. This gave me the idea of calling the brand ‘Love Paris’, the brand could extend onto such things as Love Arts, Love History and Love Fashion because these are few of the many amazing things Paris has to offer.

As I had started to design the logo I just experimented with the idea of Love Paris.

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I did experiment with a few stylish typefaces and really liked the way the brand identity started to look however I couldn’t make my mind up so I decided to create another one that looked good so that later on I could compare and make a decision. After experimenting these are the logo variants I came up with.

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After some careful consideration I think that I still preferred the first one I developed. I didn’t want to spend to much time running forwards and backwards changing my mind so I stuck with my choice. This lead me onto picking out the correct colours I could possibly use. I did try few others but for relevance I thought it would be best to use red and blue as they are in the French flag. Red is a colour commonly related to love so I thought it was best to use red for the ‘Love’ part of the brand and blue for ‘Paris”.

Here are the results of my experiments,

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Here you can see I also played around with the positioning of the logo as I just wanted to make sure I had chosen the best suited version. With the colours I tried a few different shades of red and blue but as these colours do not always mix well I had to make sure they fit together perfectly. I think I have got a good mix between the red and blue. I found a nice shade of blue early on that I think suits the idea of Paris, however the shade of red took a while longer to find as I couldn’t make my mind up at first. Some of the shades are included in the images above however there was many others I tried first.

I am now very happy with the brand logo, next on my list is to decide on which items shall I create to be branded. Deciding on items to brand is difficult not because it’s hard to choose but there are many items to consider. After looking back at the summery of the Project I wrote myself to keep on track I wanted to start the development process of a city map that could be used in a small city guide. I think this would be very fitting to my idea of encouraging tourism in Paris.

To start I needed a copy of the current map of Paris, after taking some time to study the map I thought about how I could make the map interesting and inviting for tourists to look at. Having a basic map wouldn’t make the cut because they could find that anywhere. As I am trying to encourage tourism I think I will feature the top ten tourist attractions. Using these as a point of direction I could create a travel friendly map that is creative but also useful to tourists. The soul purpose of this map is to be used by tourists not the local people of Paris. This allows me to make the map more fun and creative so it attracts people.

Using various Adobe programmes I created and illustrated a version of the map. I still wanted to stick to the branding guidelines I set myself I though’t it would be best to keep the map design simple but creative here is my version of the map without any information on it.

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I did experiment with different colours but as I was going to be adding type to the design I didn’t want it to become difficult to read. I used the same typographic styling for the map as I used in the branding. The key points to me creating a nice map thats creative is to keep it simplistic and practical. I used love hearts for the map icons as I wanted to allow the idea of love to flow through out all of the branding.

At first I did have issues with the blue text on the back ground as it was small, but by slightly playing around with the back ground I managed to get the text clear.

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Here is the map I created for the city it did take a long period of time to create it. I did expect it to consume a lot of my time however it took more than expected. I am really pleased with the outcome and I will start to mock it up once I have finished the other branded items.

I decided that this brochure should be Tri-Folded as I think it would be more suitable. This brochure will be placed in Travel Agents and Tourist Information booths. I need to design the other side of the booklet, I think this should include information about some of the most popular sights to see. Using my research I will be able to get all the information I need.

I designed and experimented with different designs, I used the same typographic styling as I have used for the other and came up with 2 different covers.

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I am pleased with these however I may still change them slightly as I go on. Next I wanted to design three posters to show how the branding could work with. When I first started the planning for major project I talked about how I liked black and white imagery with white typography on them. This gives me a chance to show how the brand could branch off using poster designs. I went on the search for great photography that I could use for the imagery. I think I found the perfect images which you can see below.

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I really like the posters but after discussing through a few things with my tutor and peers I certainly need to give these more context. Apart form the Love Paris Poster if the other two were just on a billboard in a city centre for example. People wouldn’t recognise the idea or the brand giving the designs no meaning or purpose.

The purpose of these posters is to promote the brand or advertise the branding to encourage people to visit Paris. With this in mind the idea is to use a well known travel agency like Thomas Cook or Thomson to advertise the brand giving it a campaign as such to travel to Paris. The idea is if I use Thomas Cook for example I could show how these posters could be placed anywhere as advertisements and people will want to find out more by searching through Thomas Cook and coming across promotions to visit Paris.

While I was looking into Thomas Cook and there promotions I came across a promotion they did called Thomas Cook Let’s Go! I though’t this was so fitting to what I am trying to achieve with this project that I had to use this for the Promotional items. I started to put the promotional type onto the poster but at first I wasn’t sure on how I was going to make sure it looked great but authentic.

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These were my first two attempts I think there is something here that I can use but It just need a little bit more work. I’m not 100% happy with the positioning of the type but I will figure it out.

I did at some point show how these would look if mocked up onto stationary.

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Here is what I came up with.

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I am really pleased with my out comes it’s time to mock them up and show all the items I will be submitting for assessment.

Here we have the Brands Identity.

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Here we have the variants.

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The front cover variants of the Tri-folded Brochure.

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The City Map.

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Three Poster Designs.

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I am really pleased with my outcomes I think the look very appealing and they meet the brief standard. I set myself certain goals which I feel have all been achieved. The brand I have developed is both exciting and creative while keeping the design simple. Simple is key no miscommunication was intended and I feel as though there isn’t any. The core values of Paris I feel have be replicated throughout the brand really well.

City of love – It is very stereotypical of the older Paris to been known as this, however I think it is something that needed bringing back to life. I feel as though there is no mistaking the brand and it’s pushing towards the city of love.

City of culture – Everyone around the world knows Paris has great culture from arts to music to fashion. I feel with the brands extensions I have shown how my work could also go on to show how they could and would progress into others areas such as ‘Love Cuisine’ or ‘Love Music’. There is no limits to where the brand could go on and be successful. The branding and its designs I think show Paris has great culture and replicates everything Paris wants to be.

Modern living – Paris is seen as a modern city with clean living and great education and easily accessible. My designs are clean, simplistic and modern while at the same time been creative which I think replicates the modern living aspect.

I have show the brand in modern concepts with billboards, brochures, stationery and posters. Putting these into mockups allowed me to showcase the design work while in real situations. I have also talked about how the brand would work if it was produced into a website.

I think that the designs do work well along side the branding. I feel as though the brand ethos is replicated throughout. The designs were created with the target audience in mind and I feel this is true for the designs and branding.

If I was to do this this project again I would allocate more time into building of the cities map, this used up more time than I expected and didn’t allow me to show the all of the contextual mockups I wished to have. I do feel as though there is enough but I feel as though there maybe could have been a mockup to showcase how a website would have looked. I am very happy with the branded items I choose, I think they are all successful however there could have been more examples.

The colour scheme works extremely well in my opinion, the red and blue is France and Paris in one. There is always going to be an instant connection with Paris and France whenever the identity is shown. I really like the shades of red and blue that I picked out, they work well together to say that red and blue are not normally colours that compliment each other.

I think that with all of the ideas I came up with, I have shown how they would be successful in the real world and I am confident to say that this would be successful if it was to be used for the cities actual branding. From all of my peers that I have asked for feedback from have said it was instantly recognisable and creative. The general idea is great and effective.



Professional Development

Throughout this project I will use this blog to document my progress. We have been asked to produce a project proposal to start this module off. I will put my proposal below this post. I used my knowledge and research to produce what I think is a suitable proposal for this module. I think it clearly underlines my career trajectory and ideals for achieving possible employment at the end of the College Course.

Please click the link to view the PDF for my Professional Development Proposal.



As stated in my Proposal I wanted to look further into possible opportunities that will come up. This will allow me to also gain any knowledge of freelance work evadible. Using sites such as Indeed and Linked In there are possible employment jobs out there and they all clearly label what is required.

From most of the jobs I have viewed they ask for at least 2 years work experience within industry. I do not however and not have this by the time I have finished my course, Without getting a job first I can not simply achieve this. However with freelance work I have already achieved in the past and more to come I feel as though that will give me a great starting point. I think that something needs to be mentioned here as to why it is very difficult for young designers to get a job. If every company hiring is looking for experience then how will anyone new ever get a chance. This is a problem in other industries however I think as part of my research it is important to include this finding.

One other thing they asked for is a University level degree. This is common in most of the jobs I looked into I will have achieved this at the end of my course so I do not see this as a problem. There is other ways into getting a job however on my CV having a Degree Level Qualification on there will set the mark slightly higher.

They also ask for good software knowledge of Adobe Creative Suite which is something I do have. Then there is the usuals for all jobs for example. Great working attitude,  prompt and ability to work alone or as a part of a team. These have all come from various companies and agencies seeking graphic designers.

I would say that the average salary for all of the jobs I have found are around £18,000 some do range from £16,000 up until around £22,000 depending on location and what is required of the designer. I will look into applying to these jobs and see how I get on with the applications.

Freelance Work

I have set myself the target of getting myself freelance work and this is where I will document how the journey goes. I have once before completed a freelance job for an Italian Restaurant in the Derbyshire Dales. The work from this can been seen on my personal website at  Because I have previously completed a freelance project this allows me to use that as a way to gain more as I search for freelance work.

I have been searching through various websites but I haven’t found anything suitable. However this leads me onto something that happened recently within regards to getting some freelance work. I have been contacted through a friend of mine on a Tree Surgery Company that wants a rebrand and website producing. I will meet with this company next week to discuss how this project could be taken further. I am really pleased that I have been contacted on the strength of my previous work. I will later come back to this blog post as things start to develop.

I went to meet with the possible client and things were looking good. We had discussed exactly what he would want from me as a designer and made plans for the project to start. We had already discussed details of payment before the job started so there was no issues with payment and price at the end of the project. People generally like to know how much things will cost them. As I was doing this job freelance I had to self manage this whole project to make sure that deadlines were met and effective design was achieved.

I wrote a little brief to remind me of the tasks a head. Here is a little bit about the company. N&G Tomlinson Tree Surgeons is a business that has been going for 25 years. We pride ourselves in our highly professional work and services, we also offer free advice and estimates.

Organisations we’ve worked for include,

Haddon Estates,  Peak District National Park Authority,  Local Authority’s,  Natural England,  Woodland Trust,  Camping and Caravanning Club,  Derby Diocesan Board,  Stanton Estates, Kedleston Hall,  Thornbridge Hall  and 100s of smaller private and public clients.

Project; N&G Tomlinson Rebrand

Task one; Rethink name as there is a difference between company name and website name, company name (N&G tomlinson) website name (Tomlinson Trees).

Task two; Design and produce effective branding and items including Logo, Business cards, Compliments slips and advertisement for local newspaper.

Task three; Redesign their current website and give them a social media presence.

I met up with the client once again to discuss ideas and we came to some agreements. The name needed to be the same for both the website and the company name. This came with a problem though as half of the clients for this company came to know them under each name. This lead me onto the merging of both names. N&G Tomlinson Trees or N&G Tomlinson Tree Surgeons. The client and I both agreed this is the direct route we should take and agreed on the name. I had given this a lot of thought previously to allow me to start creating logo designs.

I started how I usually start a project but sketching up ideas


I went on to develop logos and variations for the client to choose from. I first illustrated a tree for the marque as I thought this would be a great idea for a nice looking logo.

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After I sent this set of logos the client made his decision and chose the top right. I was pleased with all of these. The colour schemes I choose are relevant to forestry and nature. This set the path for me to create business cards etc.

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Here are the business cards the company choose to use and have been printed. The next stage for me is to create a website. The development for the website took around 1 to 2 months after various meetings you can view the final website by clicking this link N&G Tomlinson Trees

I also produced them an advert for a local newspaper.

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The client was more than happy with the final outcomes for his project. I feel as though this was a successful project and I am very pleased with what I learnt. Gaining client bonds and trust is always good experience, I feel I have achieved something that will give me a massive boost with regards to getting a job in the future.

Job Applications

While I have been on the course there has been a few opportunities come up which have come from the connections the tutors have that run the course. The first one to come up was a job opportunity at a digital design company called The Brand New Idea. They were looking for someone new to join the team so I thought I would give it a shot. As I was going to change my personal branding eventually in the module I hadn’t got time to do it for this job application so I made a few changes to my personal website and CV.

The changes I made to my personal website was mainly to my portfolio. I added new projects in and changed the write ups for the project descriptions. I felt these were necessary to allow me to come across as a more professional designer.

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I added the recent freelance work I had done to show that I had gained more experience. I will also include a PDF link to my CV for viewing. I no longer have my old CV to show the changes I made however I did change some of the design and layout. Also I changed the write up as it wasn’t quite ideal.

Link to – CV

I put together the following email to send to the company.

Hi Scott

My name is Jake Allen, I am currently studying on the Level 6 Graphic Design course at The Sheffield College. Previously I studied on the Graphic Design course at Norton College.

Paul Clarkson informed me about a possible job that you advertised on your website, ( Creative Technologist ).

I have decided to contact your company as I really like the work on your website and the clients you work with. I feel as though your company would be a great place to work and would allow me to gain experience and learn new areas in the design industry.

I take great pride in my work as I pay attention to every aspect, ensuring I always remain focussed on the requirements of the brief. 2 years experience is something I don’t have however I have completed 2 freelance jobs which can be found on my website.

Please find attached my CV and I have provided a link to my website so you can access my portfolio. ( )

If you have any questions please feel free to get in touch using this email or my mobile number ( 079 293 641 57 )

Yours sincerely

Jake Allen

I soon received an email back from Scott asking if I could code. As they are a digital company they wanted someone with a coding background. I only know a little CSS and HTML but this is something I can expand on later on in the future.

“Hi Jake,

Unfortunately we are looking with coding background on this occasion we would not be able to fit you to the role, keep in touch and as your skills develop please get in touch, you have some nice work. 


This is the email I received back, although I was slightly disappointed I didn’t make the cut I was happy that i’d given it ago and received compliments on my work from someone in the industry. This also allows for the possibility of employment in the future as my knowledge of coding improves.

A week on and they was asking for people to get in touch with regards to doing work placement. I was interested as I’d already made contact with the company previously and wanted to use the previous conversation to my advantage. This could have gone on to be possible employment or just good to have work experience. I did send an email enquiring about the placement but unfortunately I never heard anything back from them.

Side by Side Job Application

I was looking through various social medias and came across a job opportunity at a company called Side by Side. They are a very good Design company in Sheffield, I admire a lot of there work. I wanted to impress them with my design skills so I had to come up with something fun and interesting. They like to get very hands on when it comes to creating things so I decided I would produce a little package for them.

As in the previous year I had worked with them for a College project using one of there live briefs for a project. I came up with the idea of using UV lighting in a way to show hidden symbols. I wanted to remind them who I was and see if they remembered my idea so I put together a little box and using UV pens I drew all over the box.

Here is the development of that project.

I was really pleased with the outcome for this project, I decided to give the whole package a rustic feel which I why I tea stained my CV and wrapped it like a scroll. I also included tea and biscuits as the saying goes “think about it over a cup of tea” I incorporated my personal branding to the box.

Unfortunately I never received a reply from this company but I was really happy with what i’d made. After been unsuccessful with these last two job applications I decided I would take a look online to see what I could find. I found a few jobs that looked interesting, I applied to become an in house Graphic Designer for a company called Green Energy UK Direct Ltd, Graphic Designer at Young Ideas limited, the Bespoke Design Company in Manchester and Graphic Designer for EA in Macclesfield.

Within a Few days I received a reply from Green Energy UK Direct LTD asking me to attend an interview. After attending the interview I received the following email.

HI Jake,

I hope all is well.

We have finished interviewing people for the position of Graphic Designer at GEUK and have decided to offer you the position.

I know you are still at college but we would like to meet with you a second time to discuss our requirements and how we can progress when you graduate.

Please could you contact me directly on ………………. or email …………………. to arrange a meeting.

Kind Regards

After a few meeting I am now employed by the company and will start as soon as I have finished my university course. It is coming to the end of the module now and although I did not get chance to look at the competition briefs I do consider this to be successful. I have achieved the end goal which was originally to get employment. I will also be exhibiting my work for the end of year show although that isn’t for two months. I will slightly change my personal branding and revisit my show board. Producing items for the show is something I will do in the coming weeks.

Reflective professional evaluation

Throughout this module I had set myself tasks to be completed and I feel as though I have completed the tasks I set myself. Professionally I think I have achieved a much better understanding of the work that is needed to become a successful graphic designer. Referring back to the project proposal I set for this module, I have produced good significant research to help me on my chosen career path. The information I found helped me to achieve my goals.

I was successful in finding freelance work which I thought may be difficult originally, this gave me a significant boost when it came to confidence with getting further work or employment. I am also really pleased with the professional attitude I went at the job with ensuring the client was 100% happy with the work I produced for his company. I have received much positive feedback from this project. I did learn many new things when it comes to dealing with clients and planning/managing a project by myself. I achieved my set goal and am really pleased with the outcome.

Although I did not get chance or time to look at the competition briefs I feel as though this time was used in an even better way. I took a lot of time producing job applications to help me achieve the end goal.

I did change some of my personal branding as mentioned in my reflective journal above. I have however not managed to change all of it as I mentioned making slight alterations to my logo. I did however make changes to my CV and personal website updating previous projects and correcting a few mistakes. Before the end of year show I will be making these changes.

Job searching was a major part of this project for me. I really wanted to achieve the goal of getting employment for when I finish my course. This has become a reality for me as I achieved a job with a company called Green Energy UK Direct LTD. I will be working as an in house designer for there company developing and producing all or their branding and digital marketing. I have huge responsibilities as a designer to ensure this job will be successful.

The final part of the proposal was end of year show. I will still be working on this as the weeks go on but the deadline for this module is fast approaching and I will not have time to finish all of my items for the show. The show is not for another 2 months so I have time however it could not all be finished within this module. I am really pleased with the bits I got finished which included the CV and Website. I have also achieved some nice work for inclusion in my portfolio.

Generally I think this module has been a complete success and I will look forward to pursuing my career in graphic design. I have achieved the goals I set out and went beyond, I actually achieved employment ready for when I finish the course.


Creative Practice Project

Since receiving the creative practice brief here is what I understand, we have been asked to produce a creative outcome that runs along side the 4000 to 5000 word essay. The outcomes have to link in with the subject matter of the essay, my essay subject is Symbolism in Typography. We have to either create a 3 minute short film, 6-8 design pieces or a 10-12 photography series. Throughout the project we have been asked to do some smaller tasks.

The first task, we was asked to gather a mini series of 4 photographs that all represented power in a different way. We were then selected to be put into groups of 4 or 5, we did produce a response to this and it was shown in a group critique. However I can not show these images in my blog post just yet as I do not have a copy of them. One of the others members in our group has the original pictures because they wanted to edit them, as soon as I can get a copy of them I will upload them to this post. Our ideas included the power of genders and how society sees male and female. The power of industry, along with brand power over the people. Finally the power of engines and vehicles.

Another mini project we was asked to produce an answer to involved, showing our own interpretations of the 7 Deadly Sins.








Use the ‘Internet’ to source images. Work in a team of 3.  Qualify your visual choices using 27 words. These were the requirements, me and the team decided we would try and represent these through still shots from one movie. The movie we choose was The Wolf of Wall Street. Here is the outcomes.

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 I really liked our interpretation of the Sins, I think we produced an interesting answer to the brief. Some maybe wasn’t as effective as others but we found suitable replacements that worked well, there is back story been used to explain some of the images. For the creative practice brief we are to show our journey through our blog using 750 – 1000 words, this is the reason for me only quickly mentioning these smaller tasks.

My response to the actual brief started with my research into symbolism within typography. I found lots on symbolism but specifically for typography I had to look into the roots of typography. I found more than enough information for me to form an argument and an opinion on symbolism in typography. Here are some points I  have made note of, throughout the research there was a citation made by a Swiss artist called Jürgen Spitzmüller. The citation is called Visible by Design, the conclusion at the end of his citation completely backs up the theory that symbolism exists in typography alone. I also found a document made from the Royal Danish School of Arts, this included a quote from a PhD scholar.

“the choice of typeface plays an important role in the ability of a text to convey messages and identity. There is no such thing as a neutral typeface that simply conveys the linguistic meaning of the written words.”

“I view the individual typeface as much more than a mere container for a written message. It is a meaning-making unit that acts as an integrated element in a cultural context. Typefaces are in an ongoing dialogue with this context and produce meaning beyond the words that the typeface reproduces”

This was the starting point for my essay as it allowed me a way through the roots of typography to exactly where I needed to be. For this reason I wanted to use this information to further my research and involve it in my creative practice work.

The next stage allowed me to go on and look at the most popular typefaces of certain eras and time periods. I looked into the timeline of typography to help me with this idea.

For inclusion of my creative practice research I only included printable typefaces, however I included more in my dissertation research.

Claude Garamond from France was the first to developed the first true printing typeface not designed to imitate handwriting, but designed on rigid typeface. However it was designed on the geometric principles. Garamond started the tradition of naming typefaces after himself which became a very popular thing to do over the years that followed. Garamond became the dominant typeface for the next 200 years due to it been the first printable typeface and some- thing new and different of it’s time.

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In 1557, Robert Granjon invented the rst cursive typeface, which was built to simulate handwriting. Going back to the roots of hand writing type the idea was to create a written style that could be printed.

In 1743, William Caslon issued the typeface bearing his name which included straighter serifs and greater contrasts between major and minor strokes. This has since become more popular as time went on, there are so many variations of typeface in modern culture that thick and thin strokes are not seen as modern.

In 1757, John Baskerville introduced the rst Transitional Roman which increased contrasts between thick and thin strokes, had a nearly vertical stress in the counters and very sharp serifs.

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In 1780 Firmin Didot and Giambattista Bodoni of Italy developed the rst Modern Romans. The modern carry the transitionals to the extreme, thin strokes are hairlines, plus a full vertical stress.

In 1815 Vincent Figgins designed a face with square serifs for the rst time and this became known as the Egyptians or more recently as the Slab Serifs.

In 1816 William Caslin IV produced the rst typeface without serifs (sans serifs) of any kind, but it was ridiculed at
the time. This is a very interesting point to note as in 1816 Sans Serif typefaces were ridiculed but in modern society Sans Serif is considered a popular and clean modern style. There is a huge amount of designers that use this style of typography in the 21st century, it is believed if used correctly to give a clean modern image.

In the 1920s, Frederic Goudy developed several innovative designs and became the world’s rst full time type designer. We owe the Broadway typeface to him and many others, his work is well known around the world today.

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In 1954 Max Miedinger who is a Swiss artist is known for creating one of the the most popular typefaces in modern culture, that typeface is called Helvetica. There is a vast majority of people who know the name Helvetica, it has been so popular for so long that some designers now shun this typeface for been over used. The Swiss have become huge in today’s design styles and I think anything created by the Swiss has a certain visual expression of been modern and classy. Although the typeface was originally designed to have no visual expression.

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Here are just some examples of the most popular, I would have included more but I am currently running out of my word count. One I had to include though was Blackletter Typefaces.

Looking at blackletter typefaces is a good way to show that we trigger thoughts of images when we read certain styles. The Blackletter typeface (also sometimes referred to as Gothic, Fraktur or Old English) was used in the Guthenburg Bible, one of the rst books printed in Europe. This style of typeface is recognisable by its dramatic thin and thick strokes, and in some fonts, the elaborate swirls on the serifs. Blackletter typefaces are based on early manuscript lettering.

They evolved in Western Europe from the mid twelfth century. Over time a wide variety of different blackletters ap- peared, but four major families can be identi ed: Textura, Rotunda, Schwabacher and Fraktur. This is one of the strongest typeface styles around, the unique strokes instantly put a perceived images in mind. When people read a typestyle like Gothic they feel black colours, a dark age, old and powerful. This is a typeface that de nitely has cultural baggage, this cultural baggage and hidden symbolism could be the very reason it isn’t popular in modern society.

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I came up with a few ideas as I was going through this project, I wanted to make a nice piece of design that showed symbolism in typography. I though’t about making posters or little flyers but I didn’t feel I could make them effective enough.

In the end however I decided to make a brochure, I started planning the layouts of the pages but I never ended up using them. As I was looking through effective uses of typography I came across examples of the New York times news paper. I also came across Old Style uses in books etc, and then of course I came across Helvetica and the Swiss design.

I found some really nice design examples for each typeface, here are the ones for Helvetica.

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I did come across Josef Muller Brockmann, I have come across him before in other projects however so I didn’t feel the need to research into him again. However his design work has influenced so much of Swiss design this is where the angles and use of negative space come from.

Here are some influential uses of Blackletter over the years.

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I think the most famous uses of Blackletter out of all these is the New York Times newspaper, the blackletter typefaces are becoming more popular in branding today with beers etc.

I was looking for famous uses of Goudy and Old Style but all I came across were books and printed pages of long text, after some research into the Old Style typefaces it turned out that they were designed to be friendly to the eye. This was so they could be used for mass amounts of text on a page.

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I used these examples as ideas, as these are the most common ways of using these typestyles. I decided that it would be the best way to represent symbolism, by creating my own versions of these styles I can put my own little twist on them. This way it would allow people to make an association with the style. This would start putting symbolism into prospective.

I started to develop and design the pages of the brochure, using my computer skills along with adobe software here is what I created.

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I used the newspaper style for Blackletter as in my opinion this is the most recognisable use of Blackletter, also the same idea was used with Helvetica and Old Style. The information on the pages includes history of the typeface as I thought it was relevant to the cultural baggage. I really like the way these designs turned out although I feel as though I need something else to go with them in the brochure. I decided to include descriptive details of each typeface so the reader would learn how to identify the typeface.

To achieve this I used descriptive labels on each point of the typeface, I decided to give the page some character by adding a silver textured background and using large type. The labels are more characteristics of the typefaces themselves, I also used this idea for the cover.

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I thought the labels were descriptive and fun I really liked the way these designs turned out. I am running over my word count now so I will conclude the project.

Conclusion, I feel as though I have done everything asked of me by the brief. All outcomes were submitted before the deadline and I am happy with Them. I feel as though they are effective, nice looking designs, it has been difficult adjusting to a smaller word count with my work journal. However I am pleased with my response to the brief. I would add more pages next time as I feel that the brochure needs more depth but this is something I will do before the end of year show.

Lecture 2 Semiotics Symbolism

Outcomes, Recognise the use of signs and symbols. Define the discuss signifies and signified elements within artefacts. Apply symbolism to practice.


The study of signs and symbols, we read the signs that make up an image and then we look at the significance of the signs.

Saussures theory of interpretation

Barthes’s two orders of signification.

Sign Signifier – denotation

– Connotation how is it portrayed. The interaction that occurs when the sign meets the feelings or emotions of the readers.

“The connection between the signifier and the signified is so completely learned at an early age”.

Myth – A cultures way of thinking about, a way of conceptualising or understanding it. Myths are socially, politically and historically constructed, they change with time.

Jan Van Eyck

The Arnolfini Wedding – youtube






write a supporting statement which analyses your process and outcome.

Lecture 1 Representation Defined

Notes from the lecture. Representation as a critical theory to investigate the culture world through language systems. “Representation is an essential part of the process by which meaning is produced and exchanged between members of a culture”. “It does involve the use of language, signs and images which stand for or represent things”.

Representation, A mediated process – encoders/practitioners as gatekeepers/filters.

Representation as influential – gender/ethnicity/class etc – language systems that are used to become expressive of that culture.

Stereotypes labels and schemas, Ideology a system of ideas and hidden underlying messages/themes.

Questions, What are your ideas and believes? How do they appear in your work?

We were asked at the end of the lecture to comment on the lecture express any views that we have, try to make them critical or evaluative, not of the content but of our thoughts on the issues. Reflect on been a practitioner/theoretician. Identify a representational issue or group. Find images/moving image to express your area or interest e.g. representations.

Here is my response.


Representation is very important in a modern society in my opinion, we need to be able to make quick decisions in certain circumstances. When you have a language system of stereotypes, labels and schemas it is clear to me that they usually work. Over time they have developed and they are usually correct however there is certain instances were they don’t. It’s the same as “don’t read a book by it’s cover” you can usually tell if a book is going to interest you from the cover but every now and then there will be a hidden gem, I think the same rules apply to stereotypes and labels.

As a Graphic Designer I think it is important to go along with stereotypes as you may face obvious problems with ineffective advertisements etc. Stereotyping can have problems of its own, people can receive the wrong message or even get offended. This can sometimes do more damage than ever thought, it can cause people to single themselves out from one another e.g. higher and lower class. Whether or not people believe it to be wrong I think it is necessary.

This ideology did not happen on purpose, it is something that has developed and progressed over time. It has now become a major part of society and generally people use labels and stereotypes whether or not they intend to. With these reasons alone I do believe that, I as a Designer need to learn and understand how to show and progress these hidden messages and themes in my work to create a greater impact.

Representational issues and groups,

I think the big representational issues lay within upper and lower class and gender, this has for many years now been a huge problem. The whole idea that one person is a bigger and better person because of the assets they carry, by which I mean money, houses and clothes etc. This is not the case but there is this eagerness to live the dream similar to the American Dream stereotype.

Concerning the gender issues we face at the current moment in time the labels given to each gender still exist in design because they work. For example become a man is something that is always been pushed into young male adults and there is design work to go with it.

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On the other hand for the women it there is completely different take, I don’t think there is an issue here I’m just identifying the labels given to each gender and reflecting on the labels each gender are given.

Here is an example of how using these language systems can cause problems but it also shows the difference between adverts aimed at men and women.

Critical Studies Lectures

Critical studies module, Culture and theory, Philosophy, Censorship propaganda and Postmodernism.

Reading is very important expanding the mind and looking deeper into theory’s.

Module assessment, Evidence comment, Discursive, Evaluate, Referencing & bibliography (plagiarism) reference everything.

Presentation of work, Power of research in theory.

Pre Term Task

Just before the course started we was given a pre term task. The task required us to Read the extract provided (a review of two books): Fredric Jameson’s “Towards a New Awareness of Genre” from Science Fiction Studies, Volume 9 (1982).

    1. What are the key points Jameson makes in this article?
    2. What does he say about genre and its problems?
    3. What is his answer to this?
    4. Why are Asimov’s stages theory (of American SF) “attractive”, do you think?
    5. Do you think genre has changed since the 1980s and if so, how and why?
  1. We recommend that you read Sophie’s World by Jostein Gaarder – (any edition will do) e.g. (1995) London; Phoenix House. It is essentially a novel, but it takes you through all the great philosophies in an approachable and enjoyable way which will help tremendously with the “bigger ideas” we are discussing this year.

Here is my response;

What are the key points Jameson makes in this article?

Maturation in recent years of Science Fiction has evolutionary leaped from the pulps to “high culture”.

The most appropriate review of such a volume will naturally enough be an indication of its limits and its omissions – something that is all the more embarrassing since the critical anthology systematically corrects a good many of these last in advance: thus Parrinder’s deliberate avoidance of any history of the genre.

Single exemplifications of genres do not exist, genre needs to be recreated not removed.

SF in particular should be seen as practical recipes rather than put into categories.

He has always been attracted to stages Asimov’s stages theory of SF.

SF: Its Criticism and Teaching is not the book to consult for historical information about the development of SF; but such interests will in any case be more intelligent and production after the study of a book like this.

SF: A Critical Guide remedy this deflect as well: Raymond William’s powerful account of the revival of the utopian impulse and of the utopian literature gives us a very significant historical marker.

What does he say about genre and its problems?

Princeton UP 1971 was perhaps the first powerful expression of this newer generic awareness – that pure textual exemplifications of a single genre do not exist; and this, not merely because pure textual exemplifications of anything are rare, but well beyond that, because texts always come to been at the intersection of several genres and emerge from the tensions in the latter’s multiple force fields.

What is his answer to this?

This discovery does not mean the collapse of genre criticism but rather its renewal: we need specifications of the individual “genres” today more than ever, not in order to drop specimens into the box bearing those labels, but rather to map our own coordinates on the basis of those fixed stars and to triangulate this specific given textual movement.

Why are Asimov’s stages of theory “ attractive” do you think?

I think that Asimov’s stages of theory are attractive because they work, anything that has grown or changed through time usually shows you a clear time line of events. For example through his theory we can see that SF itself had its own ideals at each period in time. Things are always going to change and for something we create it is always attractive to see how it changes.

Do you think genre has changed since the 1980’s and if so, how and why?

I do think that genre has changed as all things do over time but I don’t think it has changed much. I think there has been more categories (genres) created to allow us to be more specific with our choosing of novels. When so many stories can be placed in more than one genre a new specific one has to be created. I think this has allowed many more genres to be created.

I have started to read the book but I haven’t quite finished it yet.